Resistance heating elements have proven effective for preheating and post weld heat treating welded connections and constructions. Flexible ceramic heating elements can be used on all types of metal. The ceramic resistance elements used for this are available in various sizes and voltages.
The heat transfer is by means of heat radiation and direct contact. Using this method any desired temperature up till and including 1200° can be achieved in a controlled manner. Resistance elements are also available for rent and sale.